Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm
What is a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm?
The part of your aorta that runs through your chest is called the thoracic aorta, and when a weak area of the thoracic aorta expands or bulges, it is called a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Approximately 25 percent of aortic aneurysms occur in the chest.
Atherosclerosis, a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries, is frequently associated with aneurysm. However, it is not thought that this disease alone causes the growth of an aneurysm. It is believed that other factors, such as high blood pressure or connective tissue disorders, must be present for an aneurysm to form.
- High blood pressure
- Arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis
- Inherited connective tissue defects such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- Bacterial endocarditis
- Age 60 or older
- History of heart attack
- Family members with aneurysms, particularly male children of an affected mother
- Infectious aortitis
- Great vessel arteritis, also known as Takayasu’s disease
- Injury to the aorta, from either a motor vehicle accident or a stab wound
Many aneurysms do not have symptoms. They are detected during a routine physical exam or during X-ray evaluation for another disorder. Symptoms may occur when the aneurysm grows or disrupts the wall of the aorta. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include:
- Pain in the chest area
- Constant pain occurring over hours or days
- Sudden onset of severe stabbing pain
- Cough, shortness of breath
- Difficulty swallowing
- Coughing up blood
- Weight loss
- Chest pain
Diagnosis & Treatment
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Pain is the symptom that will most likely cause you to go to the doctor. Most aortic aneurysms are discovered during a routine physical exam. Your doctor may need pictures of your heart. This can be done with:
- Chest X-ray
- Chest ultrasound
- Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the chest
- Transesophageal echocardiography
- Cardiac catheterization
The following procedure is offered at St. Elizabeth's Interventional Peripheral Vascular Lab for the treatment of a thoracic aortic aneurysm depending on a patient’s diagnosis:
- Endovascular Thoracic Stent Graft. This procedure is a minimally invasive approach and involves using a stent for the repair of the aneurysm. Through small incisions in the groin, tcatheters are used to guide and deliver a stent-graft through the blood vessels to the site of the aneurysm. The stent graft is then deployed in the diseased segment of the aorta and "relines" the aorta like a sleeve to divert blood flow away from the aneurysm. A stent graft is a fabric tube supported by metal wire stents that reinforces the weak spot in the aorta. By sealing the area tightly with your artery above and below the aortic aneurysm, the graft allows blood to pass through it without pushing on the aneurysm.
There are no guidelines for preventing an aneurysm because the cause is not known. However, you can reduce some of your risk factors by following these recommendations:
- Eat a healthy diet that is low in saturated fat and rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
- Don't smoke. If you smoke, quit.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Begin a safe exercise program with the advice of your doctor.
- Seek treatment for high blood pressure, syphilis and other infections.
- If you have Marfan syndrome, see your doctor regularly for monitoring and CT scans.